Monday, April 11, 2016

Understanding and decomposing the task

Project Phases and the Project Life Cycle
A project life cycle is a collection of project phases
Project phases vary by project or industry, but some general phases include

Product Life cycle
Products also have life cycles.
The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a framework for describing the phases involved in developing and maintaining information systems

Common name for these general phases are in information systems.

Popular models of a System Development  Life Cycle
Waterfall model
Spiral model
Implemental release model
Prototype model
These are all examples of product life cycles.

Project life cycle & Product life cycle 
Project life cycle and Product life cycle are 2 things.
Project life cycle appears to all projects, regardless of the products being produced.
Product life cycle vary considerably based on the nature of the product.
Large system development products are developed as a series of projects.

Project Management Framework

Key element of the framework include
Project stakeholders
Project Management Knowledge areas
Project Management tool and techniques.
1). Stakeholders
People involved in or affected by project activities.
Project sponsor, project team, support staff, customers, users, suppliers.

2). Knowledge areas
Knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project manager must develop
There are 9 knowledge areas ,with
4 core knowledge areas
Project Scope Management
Time Management
Cost Management
Quality Management

4 facilitating areas
Project Human Resource Management
Project Communication Management
Project Risk Management
Project Procurement Management

Project Integration Managemen

Core Knowledge Areas
Project Scope Management
Time Management
Cost Management
Quality Management

1 Project Scope Management

Initiation: beginning a project or continuing to the next phase.
   output is a project charter.
Scope planning: developing documents to provide the basis for future project decisions, including criteria for determining if project, phase has successfully completed.
Output are scope statement and scope management plan

Scope definition: subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components.
 Project team crate work breakdown structure during this process
Scope verification: formalizing acceptance of the project scope.
 Key project stakeholders –customer, sponsor formally accept the deliverables of the project.
Scope change control: controlling changes to project scope.
  outputs are scope changes, corrective actions, and lesson learned.

2 Project Time Management Processes

Project time management involves the processes required to ensure timely completion of a project.  Processes include:
Activity definition
Activity sequencing
Activity duration estimating
Schedule development
Schedule control

3 Project Cost Management Processes
Resource planning:

Cost estimating:

Cost budgeting:
Cost control:
4 Project Quality Management Processes
Quality planning:
Quality assurance:
Quality control:
Facilitating Areas
Project Human Resource Management
Project Communication Management
Project Risk Management
Project Procurement Management

5 Project Human Resource Management?
Project HRM includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with a project.

Processes include
Organizational planning
Staff acquisition
Team development

6 Project Communications Management Processes
Communications planning: determining the information and communications needs of the stakeholders
Information distribution: making needed information available in a timely manner
Performance reporting: collecting and disseminating performance information
Administrative closure: generating, gathering, and disseminating information to formalize phase or project completion

7 Project Risk Management?
The goal of project risk management is to minimize potential risks while maximizing potential opportunities.  Major processes include
Risk management planning: deciding how to approach and plan the risk management activities for the project
Risk identification:  determining which risks are likely to affect a project and documenting their characteristics
Qualitative risk analysis: characterizing and analyzing risks and prioritizing their effects on project objectives
Quantitative risk analysis: measuring the probability and consequences of risks
Risk response planning: taking steps to enhance opportunities and reduce threats to meeting project objectives
Risk monitoring and control: monitoring known risks, identifying new risks, reducing risks, and evaluating the effectiveness of risk reduction

8 Project Procurement Management Processes

Procurement planning: determining what to procure and when
Solicitation planning: documenting product requirements and identifying potential sources
Solicitation: obtaining quotations, bids, offers, or proposals as appropriate
Source selection: choosing from among potential vendors
Contract administration: managing the relationship with the vendor
Contract close-out: completion and settlement of the contract

9 project Integration Management

It involves coordinating all of the other project management knowledge areas throughout a project life cycle.
It ensures that all the elements of a project come together at the right time to complete a project successfully.
Framework for Project Integration Management

This is show, how Project Integration Management serves as the guiding force in managing a project.
X axis represent phases in project life cycle.
Y axis represent 8 project management areas.
Project Integration Management Knowledge area is represented as an arrow that become more focused as the project progress through its life cycle and guide to success the project.
Project Integration Management Processes
Project Plan Development:
    taking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent, coherent  document—the project plan
Project Plan Execution:
    carrying out the project plan
Integrated Change Control:
    coordinating changes across the entire project.

3). Tools and Techniques

These are assist project manager and their teams in carrying out scope, time, cost & quality management.
Additional tools help to human resource, communication, risk ,procurement & integration.
Ex: Some popular time management    tools:
Gantt Charts
Network diagrams
Critical Path Analysis

What is Project Management?

What is Project Management?
   Project management is “the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet project requirements”

The Context of IT Projects
IT projects can be very diverse in terms of size,  complexity, products produced, application area, and resource requirements
IT project team members often have diverse backgrounds and skill sets
IT projects use diverse technologies that change rapidly.  Even within one technology area, people must be highly specialized

Special characteristics of and IT project 
Invisibility: when physical artefacts such as bridge or road is being constructed the progress being made can actually be seen. With software progress is not immediately visible
Complexity: more complex then other engineering works
Conformity : software developers have to conform to the requirement of human clients.

Importance of Software Project Management
Software projects have more frailer rate
Final project is invisible until it ends
Software Project use lot of effort, time , resources & money
The need for Software projects keeps increasing

Advantages of Using Formal Project Management
Better control of financial, physical, and human resources
Improved customer relations
Shorter development times
Lower costs
Higher quality and increased reliability
Higher profit margins
Improved productivity
Better internal coordination
Higher worker morale

Introduction to Project Management & the Profile of a Software Project

At the end of the lesson student should be able to:

Define what a project is
characteristics of project activities related to manage projects in
   organization and tools and techniques available for project management
special characteristics of and IT project

how IT projects differ from other projects.

What Is a Project?
A project is “a temporary endeavour undertaken to accomplish a unique product or service”
  1.        Attributes of projects
  2.        unique purpose
  3.        temporary
  4.         require resources, often from various areas
  5.        should have a primary sponsor and/or customer
  6.        involve uncertainty
The Triple Constraint
Every project is constrained in different ways by its
             Scope goals:  What is the project trying to accomplish?
             Time goals:  How long should it take to complete?
             Cost goals:  What should it cost?
It is the project manager’s duty to balance these three often competing goals